Source: Extracted Documents from the archives of the French protectorate administration in Morocco stored in the archival center in Nantes (Centre d'Archives de Nantes).

The above letter is a request for an audience with His Majesty the Sultan with regards to the Berber Issue.

The above letter is a request for an audience with His Majesty the Sultan with regards to the Berber Issue.

Text of the petition to be presented on behalf of the people of Salé to His Majesty the Sultan with regards to the Berber Issue (page 1/2)
Text of the petition to be presented on behalf of the people of Salé to His Majesty the Sultan with regards to the Berber Issue (page 2/2)

Text of the petition to be presented on behalf of the people of Salé to His Majesty the Sultan with regards to the Berber Issue.

From left to right: Ahmed Hajji, Ahmed El Jariri, Abou Bakr Zniber

From left to right: Ahmed Hajji, Ahmed El Jariri, Abou Bakr Zniber

  • Letter dated August 28, 1930 addressed to the Pasha of Salé to which the petition with regards to the Berber issue was attached and addressed to His Majesty the Sultan, to the French government in France and to the Resident General of France in Rabat.

    The members of the delegation from Salé whose names are listed on the right hand margin have the honor to request the authorization to represent the city of Salé for an audience to be granted by His Majesty the Sultan with regards to the Berber issue and to be given the privilege to deliver the petition to the Sovereign which is attached for your information.

    Signed: Abou Bakr Zniber, Ahmed Hajji, Mohammed Talbi

  • Confidential message with regards to English commerce in Morocco

    Sidi Ahmed Hajji of Salé has met with the former General Consul of Great Britain in Rabat on the matter of the slump in sales of English products and provided him with a report on this subject.

    This report has been the subject of much scrutiny by the cabinet by Her Majesty of Great Britain.

    The current General Consul had asked Sidi Ahmed to remain in contact with him and had requested his presence in Tangiers where the General Consul went recently to confer with the local British authorities.

    Following indications provided by Sidi Ahmed, the English government intends to reduce its exports of textile products to Morocco which are no longer able to compete with Japanese exports and to replace them with significant quantities of sugar to compete with French exports of this product that are still selling at a very high price.

    No. 4195Scc/l - Rabat, September 1, 1934

    Copy sent to Mr. Comptroller of Public Order, Head of the Rabat Region, for his information.

    Region of Rabat - No 799 PIR

    Copy sent to Mr. Comptroller of Public Order for the district of Salé for his information and a request to please provide me with information related to new English commercial activity in your district. Signed: Comptroller of Public Order, Head of the Rabat region.

  • The Comptroller of Public Order, Head of the District of Salé to Mr. Comptroller of Public Order, Head of the Rabat region.

    Salé, September 5, 1934

    I have the honor to acknowledge receipt of your communication No 799 PIR dated September 3, with regards to the eventual competition of French sugar exports to Morocco by English commerce.

    This project appears to be distorted. In reality Sidi Ahmed Hajji intends to establish a large store on Rue Cherratine in Salé. He will limit his business to the sale of only English products such as cotton and woolen fabrics, silverware and imitation silverware, etc...

    He will have his three sons head this establishment; two returning from Egypt and a third from Paris. Sidi Ahmed Hajji has already accumulated in a warehouse he owns a fairly large amount of merchandise and awaits the moment to put in place a sufficiently large locale to open his business. I do not believe by the way that the opening of this establishment will occur for several months.

    I will add that one of Sidi Ahmed Hajji's sons is in London in charge of a business that sells Moroccan goods and that the head of the family intends to set up exchanges with English merchants he will contact to increase the clientele of his Salé business.

Political memo with respect to Sidi Ahmed Hajji's commercial activities with Great Britain

Political memo with respect to Sidi Ahmed Hajji's commercial activities with Great Britain

  • The nationalist and English protege, MOHAMED HAJJI, who came back to his family in Salé on September 29, 1935 has left for London on October 14, 1935. He has declared that he will return to Morocco by the end of this month.

    During his stay in Salé, MOHAMED HAJJI went to FEZ where he met with a number of his comrades most notably with one called ALLEL EL FASSI.

    On October 18, 1935 the General Consul of England in Rabat went to Salé. He went to Bab Hassain to dine at the residence of the English protege, SIDI AHMED HARATI HAJJI, father of the above mentioned person. He relayed to his host a telegram from MOHAMED HAJJI expedited from London by the English Post Office to inform him that he arrived at his destination after a good trip.

    Several members of the HAJJI family appear to have developed over a period of time relations with the General Consul of England in Rabat where two of them SAID HAJJI and ABDELKRIM HAJJI frequently visit (the Consulate) to gather English newspapers stating that only the English press reports the exact truth on the status of the hostilities in Ethiopia. These two nationalists, who know English, translate the commentaries of these papers to their comrades and accompany these with vivid criticism against the newspapers in Morocco who they accuse of being censured locally.

    These discussions are often held at BOUBEKER EL KADIRI's residence at Rue Zenatta in Salé.

    It appears that there is an active propaganda campaign started by members of the HAJJI family, in particular by the brothers, SAID, ABDELKRIM and MOHAMED HAJJI, all of whom are English proteges, who enjoy the support of England amongst all the other nationalist elements of Morocco and most especially among the inhabitants of our city. This propaganda has intensified after the Italian conflict broke out in Ethiopia.

    It does not appear that demonstrations were organized by our city's nationalist elements on the occasion of the arrival of the ashes of General Lyautey irrespective of some hostility to their transfer.

    Mr. Vice Director and Head of the General Police Services in Rabat

    Mr. Comptroller of Public Order and Head of Municipal Services of Salé.

    Mr. Division Commissioner in Rabat

Information memo on the political activities of the Hajji family

Information memo on the political activities of the Hajji family

  • Information memo on the political activities of the Hajji family

    (This includes the father of the family who is blamed for unfavorable acts against French commerce as well as the hostile positions taken against colonial policy by his younger son, Mohamed living in London and his youngest sons, Abdelkrim and Said who are considered to be the instigators of the protest movement against the Berber Decree.)

    The Division Commissioner to Mr. Vice Director and Head of the General Police Services of Rabat.

    Re: Meeting of the nationalists at Sidi Ahmed Hajji's residence

    Salé, February 11, 1935

    I have the honor to inform you that on the 10th at 6PM the nationalists Mohammed Ben Hassan El Wazzani and Allal El Fassi, accompanied by Mohammed El Yazidi came to Salé and went directly to Rue Bab Hasain to the residence of English protege, Sidi Ahmed Hajji, where a dozen young Slawis (Moroccan name for Salé residents) awaited and are known for their Francophobe feelings. Among them Abderrahman and Said Hajji, Ahmed Maâninou, Mohammed Hassar, Mohammed Chemao, and Abou Bakr Kadiri. This meeting lasted till 11:30PM. Then Mohammed El Wazzani and Allal El Fassi left for Rabat where they went with Mohammed El Yazidi to his residence at 6 Rue Sidi Kacem-Boukroun to spend the night before leaving by bus to Tangiers the next morning. The exact purpose of the meeting remains unclear; nevertheless there is a long standing question of the cost of sending a Moroccan delegation to the Geneva League of Nations. On that matter, Mohammed Hajji, a London merchant, whose movements were recently reported by the frontier post of Arbaoua (old boundary between the French and Spanish Moroccan zones), had left Salé on the 9th on the Minerva bus to Tangiers allegedly bearing an important sum of money collected from the nationalist elements of Casablanca and Rabat.

    (Carbon copy sent to inform Mr. Comptroller of Public Order and Head of the Municipal Services of Salé.)

  • Letter from Abdelkrim and Said Hajji addressed to the Rifian Chieftain, Abdelkrim Al Khattabi.

    Dispatch note on December 5, 1929 from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to the Resident General of France in Rabat, Mr. Lucian Saint.

    Attached communiques:

    Copy of a letter from the department addressed to the colonies.

    Copy of a letter from the department addressed to London

    French translation of the letter from Abdelkrim and Said Hajji

    Re: For your information and request to tell me, if possible, more about the authors of the letter to Abdelkrim (Al Khattabi)

  • The Minister of Foreign Affairs to Mr. Minister of the Colonies (Muslim Affairs Section)

    Paris, December 5, 1929

    You have been kind enough to have to put at my disposal via dispatch No. 323 of November 25, 1929, the original and the French translation of a letter in Arabic sent from London addressed to the Rifian Chieftain, Abdelkrim (Al Khattabi) and to inquire on behalf of the Governor of the Island of Reunion if he can pass it on to the intended recipient.

    By way of thanking you for this interesting communication, I have the pleasure to send you the related documents of concern as attachments. I believe it would be most inopportune to pass on to Abdelkrim any document of this genre, which would naturally lead him to believe that he can still count on resolute partisans in Morocco.

  • The Minister of Foreign Affairs to Mr. Urbain Blanc, Delegate of the Residence General of France in Rabat.

    Paris, December 31, 1929

    Through dispatch note No. 2232 on the 5th of this month, I sent you the French translation of a letter addressed to Abdelkrim by two Moroccan residing in London.

    I have the pleasure to sent you herein with all intents and purposes a copy of a letter No. 582 sent on December 21, 1929 by which our ambassador in London provided me with the information I requested of him on the profiles of the signers of the letter in question.

  • The Comptroller of Public Order of the District of Salé to Mr. Comptroller of Public Order and Head of the Rabat Region.

    By returning to you the attached confidential letter from the Head of the Service for Public Order (Service des Contrôles Civils) No. 12 S.C.C. sent on January 4, I have the honor to provide you the following requested information on the authors of this correspondence and on their family.

    The Hajji family is a notable family of Salé allied to the best families of the city. The father of the young correspondents to Abdelkrim (Al Khattabi), Sidi Ahmed Hajji, a man of approximately 55 years of age possesses a net worth that could be estimated to be about a million roughly as represented by real estate.

    Included in the latter, figures an important European style building where the old post office of Salé was situated. This building should provide its owner with a monthly revenue of about 5000 Francs.

    The family head normally is in residence in Salé however he travels at least once a year to London where he established a business selling Moroccan products, new and old, that is said to be flourishing. Sidi Ahmed Hajji has five sons:

    • Abderrahman, He is the eldest, 30 years old approximately (he was actually 28), a young Turk, Illiterate in French, but sufficiently proficient in Arabic. He is single and without any employment. Lodged by his father. An agitated spirit, he always was at the forefront on any movement. He promoted the circulation of a list of subscriptions supporting the Muslims of Jerusalem during the last events in Palestine. Visits very often the former Vizier of Justice, Bouchaïb Doukkali. Went several times to Great Britain, but did not stay for more than a year (actually made only one voyage to London and remained there one year and a half with his brother Mohammed, between 1927 and 1928).

    • Mohammed, 26 years old approximately. Usually resident in London, where he deals with the trade installed in this city by his father. Did not reappear in Salé for over a year. Passably proficient in Arabic. Speaks fluent English and sufficiently proficient in French.

    • Abdelmajid, 22 years old approximately. Attended the Salé School of the Sons of Notables during a short period , but left this establishment to pursue his Islamic studies in the city of Nablus in Palestine. Speaks some French. Disabled, a club-footed person.

    • Abdelkrim, 20 years of age.

    • Said, 17 years of age.

    These last two are the authors of the letter to Abdelkrim (Al Khattabi). They spend two months attending the Salé School of the Sons of Notable. They speak a few words in French but speak fairly well in English. On their return from London a week ago, they submitted a request for the renewal of their passports to join their brother Abdelmajid in Nablus where they intend to pursue together their studies at the Islamic University.

  • The Comptroller Head of Public Order of the Rabat Region to Mr. Emissary of the Ministry (Service of Public Order)

    Rabat, January 15, 1930

    As a followup to your letter No. 12 S.C.C. of January 4 in regards to the correspondence addressed to Abdelkrim (Al Khattabi) I have the pleasure to send the attached copy of a message from Mr. Gabrielli, Head of the Municipal Services of Salé, concerning the identities, family ties and the history of the brothers Abdelkrim and Said Hajji.

    These two youth belong to a notable family of Salé, allied to the families of the Pasha, Si Mohammed Sbihi, to the Aouads, the Hassars and the Msattas. The Pasha of Salé and Si Ahmed Hajji are married to the daughters of Si Msattas, a notable of this city. Si Mekki Sbihi, the brother of the Pasha, is the husband of a daughter of Si Ahmed Hajji. The two elder sons of the latter will marry two daughters of the Aouad family. (This paragraph which we have kept its contents unaltered contains many errors, see Chapter 3).

    Abdelkrim Hajji came to our district office to request passports for him and his brother, Said, so they could go to Nablus where they intend to pursue their Arabic studies in a Madrassa which was recommended to them in London. They stayed in London for approximately two months as students at "Marbel School."

    Abdelkrim Hajji, when questioned about the letter addressed to Abdelkrim (Al Khattabi) stated that it was written under the following circumstances:

    "In London there is a fairly important group of Muslim emigres consisting of mostly English converts, Indians, Egyptians and some Moroccans. When we arrived at the British capital, we were put in contact with several Muslims who asked me a number of questions of interest to them with respect to the social, political and economic status of our country. I was especially asked about Abdelkrim and his actions in the Rif (Mountains). I was not able to provide them with much information on this topic because, in Morocco I had not been interested on this matter."

    "I noticed that all the Muslims I met in London exhibited a very strong empathy for Abdelkrim. I fell to their influence in their midst and following the example of what was done by most of my coreligionists, I wrote the letter that you know about."

    "I regret my act and ask forgiveness by the Protectorate Government because it emanated from a youth without experience who acted unconsciously and was duped by the people he met. I dread the wrath that it will provoke in my father and in the other members of my family who will not fail to severely judge my conduct."

    Abdelkrim is just a young man, but it seems he belongs to that category of young fanatic Moroccans who are at the mercy of all suggestive influences and sees in the Islamic Orient, a land which holds a monopoly on Islamic Science. He is a budding agitator who should be kept under surveillance.

    Besides, during a prior visit with me, Abdelkrim Hajji declared that he decided to get educated outside of Morocco because his compatriots are receiving a defective education in their country. He added that the British Government and the Royal Consul of Egypt in London promised him all manner of accommodations for him and his brother, Said, when in Nablus.

    I await your instruction with regards to delivering the requested passports.

    Signed: Peyssonnel

  • The Resident Commissioner of the French Republic in Morocco to Mr. Minister of Foreign Affairs, Paris.

    Re: Correspondence with Abdelkrim (Al Khattabi) - Reply to (dispatch) 2434 (No date given on the copy)

    Your Excellence was kind enough to send me a copy from our ambassador in London with regards to the two young Moroccans, residing in this capital and authors of a letter to Abdelkrim. I have not failed to seek the family background of these two young Moroccans, i.e. their family ties in order to determine if their initiative was in response to some political purpose.

    By fortunate circumstances, the two young writers to Abdelkrim have returned from England. We were able to interrogate them.

    The attached report from the Comptroller of Public Order of the Rabat Region specifies the irresponsible nature of an initiative that, among other impacts, had alarmed a family from Salé which heretofore was convinced of their loyalty to us.

    The incident would therefore be without any bearing if the statements by young Abdelkrim did not underscore an implementation driven by foreign influences.

    In fact, this young man stated that he found himself amid English converts, Indians, Egyptians and Moroccans where the rebel chieftain of the Rif enjoys much sympathy. The influence of these people drove him he says, in the spirit of imitating them, to show sympathy with the exiled leader. His young brother, Said, joined him in this gesture.

    Each of them has expressed their regrets at the instigation of their family which naturally wished that we forgive this youthful errant behavior.

    Our interests would have been to accommodate them without punishment and with a friendly solution if Abdelkrim and Said Hajji would have decided to remain in Morocco among their kin. However they have presented a request for passports to go to Nablus where they intend to pursue their studies,

    This Residence does not think, especially after the misconduct committed, that it would be possible to acquiesce to such a request. Thus it has been decided to refuse their requests for passports. Your Excellency will no doubt appreciate that this gesture is necessary. The raising of our young proteges must be done by us and for us. There is no reason nor interest to accept that it be done by others, against us.

  • The Managing Director of Public Education, Fine Arts and Antiquities of Morocco to Mr. Director of Indigenous Affairs.

    Rabat, February 24, 1930

    You have on several occasions wanted to let me know that young Moroccan men, notably from the Spanish zone, have gone to Nablus in Palestine to study Arabic. On my end, I have learned that this city and its university have attracted the attention of a number of Moroccans from the French zone..

    Mr. Terrasse, Professor at the Moroccan Institute of Higher Learning, who recently traveled through Palestine and Syria on a mission on behalf of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, was able to obtain some information on Nablus. This city is known for its Muslim fanaticism and its xenophobia.

    Nevertheless there is a sort of American catholic institute located there whose level of instruction is rather poor. According to Mr. Terasse's impression the Americans within the Muslim circles there are waging an underhanded effort against all that is European, including English. All indications are that even if Moroccans do not acquire neither some cultural upbringing nor modern instruction in Nablus they will (on the other hand) receive lessons on nationalism and fanaticism for which the colonial powers will pay the price.

  • Information concerning the activities of the Hajji brothers.

    Fact Sheet put together on September 5, 1929 by the Department of Public Order for the Rabat Region addressed to the Administration of Indigenous Affairs.

    The solicitations that were put into circulation among the Muslim population of Salé had gathered almost 2000 Francs when it was stopped. The promoters of this effort are:

    Abderrahman Hajji, Boubker Bensaïd, Mohammed Sbihi et Mohammed Hassar

    All four are young men between 20 and 25 years of age of which only the last two have been instructed in French. I summoned these young men, one of them, the head of the group, Abderrahman Hajji, I have personally seen remitting some of the funds to an Islamic charity or to return solicitations to some of the donors, if they so choose.

    Fact Sheet was sent to:

    • Mr. Vice Director and Head of the General Police Services in Rabat

    • Mr. Comptroller of Public Order and Head of Municipal Services of Salé.

    • Mr. Division Commissioner in Rabat

    Le nationaliste protégé anglais Mohammed Hajji, qui était venu dans sa famille à Salé le 29 septembre 1935, est reparti pour Londres le 14 octobre 1935. Il a déclaré qu'il serait de retour au Maroc vers la fin de ce mois. Durant son séjour à Salé, Mohammed Hajji s'est rendu à Fès où il aurait rencontré nombre de ses camarades, notamment le nommé Allal El Fassi.

    Le 18 octobre 1935, le consul général d'Angleterre à Rabat est venu à Salé. Il s'est rendu à Bab Hsaïn, au domicile du protégé anglais sidi Ahmed Hajji, père du précédent, chez lequel il a dîné. Il aurait communiqué à son hôte un télégramme expédié de Londres à la poste anglaise par Mohammed Hajji, l'informant de son arrivée à destination après un bon voyage.

    Plusieurs membres de la famille Hajji paraissent depuis quelque temps développer leurs relations avec le consulat général d'Angleterre à Rabat, où deux de ceux-ci, Saïd Hajji et Abdelkrim Hajji se rendraient très fréquemment pour y retirer des journaux anglais, déclarant que seule la presse anglaise rapporte l'exacte vérité sur l'état des hostilités en Ethiopie. Ces deux nationalistes qui ont la pratique de la langue anglaise traduiraient à leurs camarades les commentaires de ces journaux en les accompagnant de vives critiques contre les journaux du Maroc qu'ils accuseraient de subir la censure résidentielle.

    Ces communications ont lieu assez fréquemment chez Boubker Kadiri, domicilié rue Zenata à Salé.

    Il semble qu'une propagande active amorcée par les membres de la famille Hajji, en particulier par les frères Saïd, Abdelkrim et Mohammed Hajji, tous protégés anglais, est faite en faveur de l'Angleterre parmi les éléments nationalistes du Maroc, et plus spécialement de notre ville. Cette propagande paraît s'âtre intensifiée depuis qu'a éclaté le conflit italo-éthiopien.

    Il n'apparaît pas que des manifestations soient organisées par les éléments nationalistes de notre ville à l'occasion de l'arrivée au Maroc des cendres du maréchal Lyautey, quoique ces éléments soient hostiles à ce transfert.

  • The Comptroller of Public Order and Head of Municipal Services of the District of Salé to Mr. Comptroller of Public Order and Head of the Rabat Region.

    Re: Banned Newspapers

    Salé, April 25, 1930

    As a followup to your dispatch No. 61 PIR of April 19 I have the honor to provide you below the results of the requested inquiry. Moahmmed Chemao who I saw in person stated that he in fact did send some of these publications that he received to one named Hassan Soussi, a tobacconist in Tangiers. However he did add that once he received notification of the banned newspapers, he no longer sent such newspapers.

    Some information below on Mohammed Chemao:

    Born in Salé he is about 25 years of age from a modest but honorably known family. Mohammed Chemao has done very well in his Arabic schooling. He established in 1928 a bookstore which ensures him adequate revenue. He is an intelligent young man, very sympathetic to the Slawi youth of whom he is one of the most active. Among his silent partners are the three Hajji brothers already mentioned in several reports.The Chemao bookstore, recently moved to a new locale, is well managed and is a Moroccan storehouse for all newspapers from Egypt. It also receives Algerian, Tunisian and Syrian newspapers. It has subscribers from other cities in Morocco. In addition it is well known that Mohammed Chemao, encouraged by his commercial success, intends to create branches of his store in other Moroccan cities. These will be forthcoming. Among the regulars (of his store) are the aforementioned three Hajji brothers, Abdellatif Sbihi and the young Mohammed Hassar.

  • The Comptroller of Public Order and Head of Municipal Services of the District of Salé to Mr. Comptroller of Public Order and Head of the Rabat Region

    Salé, June 27, 1930

    In the morning of the 26th, I took the initiative to ask the Pasha who is charged with for maintaining public order to summon the principal leaders of the Moroccan youth of Salé and invite them to cease and desist their projected demonstration. The Pasha in total agreement with me, set the summons to be held at 6PM. I had no wish to attend, thinking that it was more politically strategic if I remain as an umpire in case the Pasha's authority is unsuccessful in stopping the projected political movement. In fact I do not think that the situation is serious enough to provoke our direct intervention which, whether we like it or not, will launch us into a brawl. That would above all else result in giving a magnified notoriety to the principal leaders. Under the pressure of the latter a very large number of young men have decided to fast without food or water throughout yesterday as a sign of mourning and protest. In fact most by and large did fast.

    In the afternoon, while Abdellatif was being sought in Rabat and Salé to respond to your summons, he was meeting with an important number (about fifty) of his young comrades at the beach of Salé. He was the only one who spoke to urge his listeners to persevere in proclaiming the "Latif" prayer. He stated that it was a prayer beseeching the mercy of God and no authority in the world could stop one from accomplishing a religious duty. Afterwards he relayed to his companions that he had written to various newspapers in Paris to alert them to situation provoked by the new decree. In summary he added that this decree reveals the very clear intentions of the French Government to put into opposition the Berber element to the Arab one. It is the "divide and conquer" that the young Moroccans must make their duty to fight.

    The applaud was instantly interrupted as the speaker was told by two agents of the Rabat police to attend with out delay the summons of the Head of the Rabat Region. He followed the agents while his companions who were summoned by the Pasha headed to the residence of this magistrate. All the other young Moroccans accompanied their summoned comrades and waited their exit in a side street. The Pasha told me that he seriously admonished those who came and threatened them with severe punishment it they did not cease their campaign of political unrest. They all made promises to stay away from any demonstration. As soon as they left the Pasha's residence , they told their companions what had transpired. Then the crowd dispersed. It was 10:30PM.

    Those are the main features of what happened yesterday. Evidently a number of rumors began to circulate and thus words were spread that the Sultan was attacked in France by a woman with a knife that resulted in a slight wound.

    In closing, I would point out that Abdellatif is so enamored with martyrdom that he stated and spread the word that he was being forced to leave Morocco within four days. I have the honor to inform you during this day of the results of the Pasha's intervention.

  • Le Contrôleur Civil de la Circonscription de Salé à Mr le Contrôleur Civil de la Région de Rabat.

    Salé, June 28, 1930

    Re: The demonstration at the Great Mosque

    I have the honor to confirm the information relayed by phone yesterday afternoon on the demonstration that occurred at the Great Mosque of Salé. The young men lectured the day before by the Pasha did not go to the Great Mosque, but the projected demonstration took place anyway and the "Latif" prayer was proclaimed by about 1,500 believers who gathered for the Friday prayers. During the "Khotba" (sermon given by the Imam), he alluded to what was to happen after prayer by saying that the Muslim community was threatened by a serious danger and to avoid this danger, all good Muslims are to seek the aid and protection of God. At the conclusion of the sermon and prayer and contrary to custom the "Fatiha" was not proclaimed. The Imam as he had announced began to cite the "Latif" and was joined by all the faithful led by many young men dispersed about the mosque. There is no doubt that many faithful proclaimed the"Latif" to do as the others and by concern that their abstention would be severely judged by their fellow believers.

    The Imam of the Great Mosque is a former Cadi of the city, El Haj Ali Aouad. He is an elder of 90 years of age, with adequate education, however the Salé people have mixed feelings towards him. The Pasha of the city attended the session and was angered and impacted by this demonstration which, after his intervention to stop it, has weakened his personal prestige.

    The exit from the mosque occurred without incident, however the faithful were talking about the event. It was unexpected or at least the "Latif" was very uncommon. All the young agitators were exultant. They see that this first success will strongly serve their cause and this event will be followed by protests addressed to several parliamentarians and to a number of French newspapers. They assert that the same demonstrations occurred yesterday in Fez, Marrakesh and Meknes.

    Abdellatif Sbihi was seen in Salé during last evening but did not have any confirmed contact with his table companions.

  • The Comptroller of Public Order and Head of Municipal Services of the District of Salé to Mr. Comptroller of Public Order and Head of the Rabat Region

    Salé, June 29, 1930

    The comments after the Friday demonstration are rather reserved. It appears as if the public feels a certain unease in expressing their views. On the other hand, one must acknowledge that the young agitators have not been isolated and have much sympathy. Moreover they are full of joy and exuberantly congratulate each other.

    During last evening, a meeting was held at the residence of Abdellatif Sbihi. After an overview on the results, it was decided to continue to demonstrate but under the cover of religion. Thus they are preparing a similar demonstration for next Friday. The "Latif" will be proclaimed in all the mosques of Salé and Rabat. Letters will be sent to the (Berber) notables of Zemmour to invite them and ask them to invite a number of their tribesmen (as many as possible) to participate in the planned demonstrations. If the faithful from Zemmour come in large numbers they will be spread across several mosques of Salé because it is the one city that Berber pilgrims come to. Although the information concerning these demonstrations have not been confirmed, this revelation should be taken seriously. It shows the amplitude unleashed by this movement which is becoming serious and deserves our attention. Perhaps there should be a call to the Zemmour authorities in charge of public order to keep a watchful eye especially on Slawis living in the Zemmour area (Abdallah Hajji among others) as well as the chieftains and notables related by their women to Slawi families. I leave this to your discretion.

    Signed: Gabrielli

    PS A list of the tepid or indifferent people has been established by the agitators. On this list figure the names of the Khalifas of Salé and of Ouezzane, both first cousins of M'hammed Naciri, judge at the Majlis (House of Representatives) and a few other young men whose indifference has shocked the agitators.

  • Personal letter from Mr. Peyssonnel, Comptroller of Public Order of the Rabat Region to one of his colleagues.

    Sunday, June 29, 1930

    My dear friend,

    I have informed Coutard of what is about to foment in Salé this coming Friday and we went together to see General Noguès. I told him of my thoughts with regards to Abdellatif (Sbihi) who I suggested be removed from Salé and Rabat. The General believes this will be necessary but not immediately. By the way he will speak to Mr. Urbain Blanc tomorrow about this. He wishes that the Pasha of Salé be given notice of the painful and disagreeable consequences he may face for not being able to stop the demonstrations. Furthermore General Noguès wishes that I give him some serious advice. Could you bring him in tomorrow morning? 11:30 for example or even earlier. If you come earlier I will find someone to take my place in distributing awards at the (school name illegible) Lycée. Bring along some tips with you on those who propagated false information and those organizers of last Friday's demonstration in Salé. The Pasha must surely know those who manipulated the others.



    As for the Zemmours. we should have sent some agents. Can you find out who they are?

  • The Comptroller of Public Order and Head of Municipal Services of the District of Salé to Mr. Comptroller of Public Order and Head of the Rabat Region

    The information gathered allows a confirmation that there is a demonstration planned for Friday, July 4.

    I requested the Pasha to take all measures possible to abort this demonstration. He must meet with the Imams and make emphatic recommendations to them

    By the way, there are 51 mosques of varying importance in Salé.

    In addition I have been able to find out that the young conspirators intend to cause the closure of all the shops as a sign of protest and mourning at a predetermined date and time. I do not believe this new plan will be successful; it is not characteristiv of the Slawi merchants to consent to making sacrifices... when it comes to money.

    In any event, I asked "Al Mohtasseb" who is ours without reservation, to discretely make inquires on the value of this information. I am at the same time keeping an eye on the traveling story-tellers who habitually frequent the souks (marketplaces) or the public squares and would not deny a copious "fabor" (donation) which the agitators will not fail to give them. A withdrawal of their travel permit will allow the Pasha to remove without delay those who appear suspect to him. I have no information on the intermediaries who will try to invite the Zemmour (Berbers) but I believe there are grounds for monitoring all the Slawis residing in the Zemmour area, be it in Tiflet or in Khemisset.

    NB Yesterday I referred to Abdallah Hajji. One should read Harti Hajji.

  • The Resident General Commissioner of Public Order to Mr. Comptroller of Public Order of the Rabat Region.

    Rabat, July 2, 1930

    I have the honor to make you aware of the following: It has come to my attention that in the evening of July 1 an emissary of the group of Slawi leaders, Mohammed Chemao,, Abdellatif Sbihi, Abderrahman Hajji, Mohammed Hassar and Abdeslam Aouad, was dispatched to a house in Rabat where a number of notables and young Moroccans were gathered, to ask them to shake off their torpor and find common cause with their neighbors.

    He is alleged to have said, "The administration is beginning to worry about our movement because it envisions our eventual expulsion. This is the moment to expand the demonstrations to get some results."

    Rumors continue to circulate that the "Latif" will be proclaimed next Friday at the Great Mosque (of Salé) and that of Sidi El Ghandour in Rabat.

    Other sources report that on that same day of July 1, after the Maghreb prayers (at sunset), the "Latif" was proclaimed by about fifty people, both conservatives and young, at the Grand Mosque of Rabat.

    A copy was sent to inform Mr. Comptroller of Public Order and Head of Municipal Services of Salé.

  • The Comptroller of Public Order and Head of Municipal Services of the District of Salé to Mr. Comptroller of Public Order and Head of the Rabat Region

    Bulletin No. 55 Cl

    The demonstration announced in my bulletin No. 54 Cl took place at the Great Mosque of Salé after the Assar (4PM) prayers. A very large attendance of the faithful was noted. The crowd was estimated to be between 2,500 and 3,000 attendees. The prayer was conducted by Haj Mohammed Ben Haj Ali Aouad, Adel of the Salé Mahkama (Justice of the Salé court) and a substitute Imam. Shopkeepers were discretely asked to assist with the prayer. They came in large numbers. The "Latif" was proclaimed in two new forms, one asking God the Preserver to free Abdellatif (the name of the arrested leader which means the servant of the Preserver), the other imploring the Lord to not separate us from our Berber brothers. A large number of youth from Rabat (I estimate the number to be about 80) came to attend the prayer. At the conclusion of the prayer and at the mosque exit, 200 pieces of bread were distributed to the poor. Reportedly a large number of notables and adouls (justices) who attended the prayer had tears running down when the "Latif" prayers were proclaimed with raised voice and could be heard far outside the mosque.

    A delegation consisting of Mohammed El Yazidi and three nationalists from Salé, Abdelkrim Hajji, Mohammed Chemao and Abdelkrim Sabounji will head to Rabat today to request an audience with the head of the (Rabat) region. Purpose: to ask for news on Abdellatif Sbihi and especially to find out if the rumors of his being sent to Oujda were true. If the delegation is not satisfied with the respone, they intend to ask next an audience with Mr. Minister Delegate at the Residence.

  • The Comptroller of Public Order and Head of Municipal Services of the District of Salé to Mr. Comptroller of Public Order and Head of the Rabat Region

    Salé, July 29, 1930

    Following a complaint lodged by the Cadi (Islamic judge appointed by the Sultan) who had a received few days ago two anonymous and insulting letters, an inquiry set up by the Pasha of Salé led to the arrest of Mohammed Chemao, a bookseller in Salé who admitted he was the author of one of the letters. Chemao was immediately incarcerated in the Rabat prison. The dissidents met at Chemao's residence and swore on the Koran that they will not renounce their stance. El Yazidi and young men from Rabat witnessed their oath. The conspirators as of yet appear undecided on who to choose as the leader. Two names were advanced, Ahmed Talbi and Benbrahim Zniber, men in their forties who, heretofore, were behind the scene. The latter who was named is the brother of Nadir of the Habous (Islamic Endowments) at Safi and I believe he is in the process of being dismissed or will resign.

  • The Comptroller of Public Order and Head of Municipal Services of the District of Salé to Mr. Comptroller of Public Order and Head of the Rabat Region

    Salé, July 29, 1930

    Yesterday evening a very large number of visitors came to the residence of Abdellatif Sbihi's mother. Among them were young men from Rabat and, for the first time, some notables of Salé. I have the names of some of the latter. Abdellatif's mother urged all the visitors to keep up the resistance. She refused the money offered to help her survive.

    One of the visitors, Abdelkrim Hajji, made it known that he had received from three notables who he did not wish to name, a sum of 2,150 Francs to be used to hire a lawyer to defend Chemao. More funds would be collected if that sum is not sufficient.

    The Salé contingent received letters from the youth of Fez which informed them that they had sent protest letters to (French) parliamentarians and to the League of Nations. They invited the people of Salé to do the same.

  • Memo sent to the Head of the Public Order Services at the General Residence.

    Rabat, October 14, 1930

    Re: Passports for passage to Beirut for the Hajji sons from Salé

    I have the honor to inform you that a notable of Salé named Ahmed Hajji, came to this department and requested authorization to send his two sons, Abdelkrim and Said, to pursue their studies at the Islamic University in Beirut. Sidi Ahmed Hajji revealed that his two sons had taken part in the recent political unrest in Salé. To prevent them from falling again into regrettable mistakes, it seemed to him judicious to distance them and provide them with (a different) occupation. Already at the beginning of this year, this person of interest had demonstrated his intention to send his kids to a college in Nablus (Palestine). We had refused to grant the requested passports because we felt that the development of our young protegees should be done by us and for us and that there was no reason or interest to agree to have it done by others, who are against us. That said, it appears to me that the new request submitted by Sidi Ahmed Hajji should be given consideration. In fact, I believe it would be opportune from a political viewpoint to allow young Moroccans from good families to complete their instruction in a country under French mandate and where, by the way, it is easy to keep them under surveillance.

    I am kindly requesting you to inform this notable that the Protectorate Government is disposed to grant the necessary passports. However one must relay to him that this act of kindness will impose on him some obligations. His kids must give themselves exclusively to their studies, to not be part of any group with political leanings and to abstain from publishing articles of any nature in the Arabic newspapers. In the event that they do not strictly conform to these directives, they will be returned to Morocco and rendered to their family.

    Kindly inform me of their date of departure for Beirut so I may alert in due time the High Commissioner in Syria for the purpose of surveillance.

  • The Comptroller of Public Order and Head of Municipal Services of the District of Salé to Mr. Comptroller of Public Order and Head of the Rabat Region.

    Salé, November 4, 1930

    As a follow up to your dispatch No. 3467 D on October 22 and in the execution of the instructions contained in the letter 1773 DAl of the 14th of the same month, I have the honor to inform you that Said and Abdelkrim Hajji left yesterday Salé bound for Beirut by the10:40PM train.(Passport numbers 3937 and 3938 dated October 27, 1930). They will head to Syria by way of Tangiers, Marseille and Alexandria. Before their departure, they committed to not be part of any group with political leanings and to abstain to publish or to inspire any article in Arabic newspapers.

    Signed: Gabrielli

    Copy sent by B.E. (Bulletin Express?) of November 15, 1930 to the Director of Indigenous Affairs

  • The Resident General of France in Rabat to Mr. High Commissioner of the Republic of France in Syria and Lebanon.

    Rabat, November 25, 1930

    Re: Abdelkrim and Said Hajji, Moroccan students heading for Beirut

    I have the honor to inform you that the two brothers Abdelkrim and Said Hajji have left Salé last November 3 heading to Beirut via Tangiers-Marseille-Alexandria. These two young men, French nationals (this is an incorrect statement by the Resident General - rather they always were Moroccan nationals) owners of passports No. 3937 and No. 3938 valid on October 27, 1930 have stated they are heading to Beirut to pursue their studies at the Islamic University. Even though they have participated in consecutive movements of political unrest after the release of the Decree of May 16, 1930 about instituting a Berber justice system, I have not seen it fit to impede their wishes.

    Nevertheless, they have committed before their departure to give themselves exclusively to their studies, to not be party to any group with political leanings and to abstain to publish any articles of any nature in Arabic newspapers. In case they stray from these indicated guidelines or if they don't respect their commitments, I would be very much in your debt if you would advise me.

    Signed: Lucien Saint

  • Information Bulletin established in 1934 by the Department of Public Order of the Rabat Region addressed to the Director of Indigenous Affairs.

    Funds have recently been collected from nationalist circles in Rabat and Salé with some activity appears to be the result of the recent visit to Rabat of Allal El Fassi and Mohammed Ben Hassan El Wazzani. These funds pulled together by Ahmed Cherkaoui and Al Attabi from Rabat and by Said Hajji and Boubker Kadiri from Salé are destined to cover the costs of printing the Reform Plan, to procure Longuet's "Al Maghrib" magazome and to collect annually 60,000 Francs from Moroccan nationalists to maintain the party leaders such as Mohammed El Yazidi who have no income nor resources.

  • Petition addressed on behalf of the Salé to His Majesty the Sultan, to the Resident General of France in Rabat and to the French Minister of Foreign Affairs.

    We, the residents of the city of Salé, request the Moroccan Reform Plan that was presented on December 1, 1934 by a delegation of the Assembly of National Action to Your Majesty the Sultan of Morocco, and to His Excellence the High Commissioner and Resident General of France in Morocco and by a delegation of the Assembly of Support for Moroccan Action to Your Excellency to please consider that it expresses the will of the Moroccan people who have full confidence in the Assembly for National Action- fullstop- We are convinced that Your Excellence has already given consideration to our demands and will use all your influence to implement them - fullstop- Please accept, Excellence, our sincere esteem-fullstop.

    This telegram was signed by 17 Ulemas and notables, 43 merchants, 5 commercial and agricultural property owners, 15 businessmen and carpenters, 8 representatives of corporations and about 20 of young students whose number includes the names of Said Hajji and his two brothers Abdelmajid and Abdelkrim alongside the signatures of Mohammed Hassar, Mohammed Chemao, Ahmed Maâninou and Mohammed Bekkali.

  • Head of the Public Order Services to the Comptroller and Head of the Public Order of the Rabat Region.

    Rabat, March 20, 1935s

    Re: Political Information

    According to an information bulletin from the Comptroller of the Sherifian Authorities of the zone of Tangiers, committees have been established in various countries to gather funds to support the inhabitants of Medina stricken by famine. In Tetuan a committee under the presidency of Abdelkhalek Torrès has started a public solicitation effort. In Fez, Alla El Fassi is in charge of collecting funds. In Rabat this role is incumbent upon Mohammed El Yazidi; in Salé it is upon Abderrahman Hajji and in Tangiers it is upon Abdelkader Ben Ahmed Dziri.

    I would be in your debt if you would cross-check this information and to inform me of any other information you can gather on this topic.

    Certified copy has been sent to Mr. Comptroller of Public Order and Head of the District of Salé for cross-checking.

  • The Division Commissioner and Head of Regional Security to Mr. Vice Director and Head of the General Police Service in Rabat.

    Marrakesh, April 19, 1935

    For all intent and purposes you deem useful, I have the honor to inform you of the arrival to Marrakesh this past 16th, of three gentlemen whose names are Said Hajji, Boubker Kadiri and Saddik Aouad; the first two are students and the third a property owner; all of them come from Salé.

    They all went to the Parc-Hôtel where Said Hajji met with Mhammed El Mellakh with whom he discussed at length the current situation then talked about the Society for the Welfare of Muslims in Marrakesh and lastly about the solidarity that should exist between nationalists.

    Said Hajji strongly encouraged his companion to continue his efforts within the nationalist circles to support the needs of the homeland.

    Said Hajji and the two nationals who accompanied him visited the Fair, the Ben Youssef Madrassa. and the Bahia Palace. Afterwards they went to the residence of Omar Sentissi, a textile merchant in the Kissaria and widely known nationalist who was sentenced to three months in prison for having taken part in an antisemitic demonstration in May 1934.

    Said Hajji, a very suspect individual, is one of the most active leaders of the nationalist movement. He became very noticeable at the time of the decree with regards to the (proposed) Berber justice system.

    Said Hajji and Saddik Aouad left Marrakesh today on the CTM bus at 5AM heading for Casablanca while Boubker Kadiri headed towards the city of Magador (currently known as Essaouira).

    Signed: Ladeuil

    Certified copy sent to Mr. Director of Indigenous Affairs in Rabat

    Informational copy to Division General Catroux, Regional Commander, to the Head of the Regional Office, to the Comptroller and Head of the Rabat Region and to the Head of the Public Order Service at the General Residence.

  • Memos from the Comptroller of Public Order and Head of Municipal Services of the District of Salé to Mr. Comptroller of Public Order and Head of the Rabat Region.

    A memo dated July 17, 1935 sent to the Comptroller of Public Order and Head of the Rabat Region to be crosschecked reports the attendance of the Hajji brothers and the group of Salé in lectures given three days a week by Mohammed Ben Larbi Alaoui at the Great Mosque of Salé. The latter is the President of the Appellate Court for Sharia Law. The lectures which seem at first glance to be harmless contain clearly anti government allusions and are subversive in nature but understandable by the nationalists who attend these lectures.

    A second memo dated July 19, 1935 estimated the number of attendees at about sixty and clarifies that the lectures are taught four times each week. The lecturer compares the past grandeur (of Morocco) with the diminished status in which Moroccans find themselves today. He makes frequent allusions to the harmful role played by European nations to the progress of Islamic development by imposing their trusteeship to Muslim states heretofore independent.

    There was no abusive language, however these lectures are filled with comparisons and hidden innuendos to naturally flatter and encourage nationalist theories that attract his audience. The attitude of this person with such a high position requires very close surveillance.

  • Information sheet related to the lectures given by Mohammed Ben Larbi Alaoui.

    Confidentiial - No .1398, July 13 1935

    Direct sources:

    • Marrakesh

    • Casablanca, Rabat and Salé

    • Validation during the Mouloud (birthday of the Prophet Mohammed) festivals according to various qualified personnel.

    The most recent activities of Mohammed Ben Larbi Alaoui, President of the Appellate Court for Sharia Law, seem to be associated with the nationalist circles of Salé. The lectures delivered at the Salé mosque three times a week by this very important person has an audience that is primarily composed of nationalists and sympathizers of the Nationalist Movement, namely Kadiri, Hassar, the Smahi brothers, the Hajji brothers, Chemao and Bouâllou.

    Ben Larbi Alaoui never misses the opportunity during these lectures to make discrete allusions that are more or less subversive in character but clearly are anti-government. He uses certain words in his lectures which to the uninitiated have no specific meaning whereas to the initiated nationalists who attend the lectures their bias is perfectly understood and intelligible.

    Besides Ben Hassan El Wazzani, Abdelaziz Bensouda and other nationalists from Fez are hosted in Rabat by Ben Larbi Alaoui. Most often they are inspired by advice he lavishes on them to better coordinate their actions.

    Certified copy sent to Mr. Comptroller of Public Order of the Salé District for the purpose of cross checking.

    Rabat, July 17, 1935

  • The Comptroller of Public Order and Head of the Rabat Region to Mr. Director of Indigenous Affairs in Rabat.

    No. 175 PIR - July 19, 1935

    Re: Mohammed ben Larbi Alaoui

    In response to your July 13, 1935 informational message No. 1398, I have the pleasure to inform you about information provided to me by the local control authority, that Mohammed Ben Larbi Alaoui, President of the Appellate Court of Sharia Law, quotes the Koran four times a week in the Great Mosque of Salé. It is true that his audience which regularly consists of about sixty people includes the key nationalists of Salé. During his lectures, this person often draws a parallel between the past grandeur of the Islamic world and the diminished status in which today's Moroccan people find themselves. It goes without saying that this professor is not open to criticism by the current regime. He regularly alludes to the harmful role played by European nations in the development of Islam by imposing their tutelage to Islamic states heretofore independent. There are no injurious nor hostile words towards us that one can naturally attribute to the suggestions by Mohammed Ben Larbi Alaoui. However the comparisons and the implications that underline his speeches are nevertheless of such nature as to encourage the nationalist theories posted by his audience. Hence the attitude of this very important person must be monitored very closely.

    Besides it is true that Mohammed Ben Larbi Alaoui received visits from young nationalists such as Mohammed El Yazidi, Haj Mohammed Naciri, Ahmed Balafrej, Mohammed Hassan El Wassani and Haj Mohammed Ben El Maalem.

  • Lectures delivered by Moulay Larbi Alaoui at the Great Mosque of Salé. These courses, regularly attended by young intellectuals, attract a large number of people estimated to be more than sixty attendees.

    Lectures delivered by Moulay Larbi Alaoui at the Great Mosque of Salé. These courses, regularly attended by young intellectuals, attract a large number of people estimated to be more than sixty attendees.

    XXX Please translate letter XXX

  • The Comptroller of Public Order of the Rabat Region to the Director of Indigenous Affairs.

    Rabat, January 6, 1936

    Subject: Delivering of passports to suspects.

    In compliance with the requirements of your circular No. 190 DAI, of August 31, 1934, which is recalled on the margin, I have the honor to inform you that I just received a request to renew a passport for London via France, Spain and Tangiers by Said Hajji, one of the active heads of the nationalist movement in Salé, registered in logbook A. I would be in your debt if you would let me know the follow up that you would find opportune to deliver to the request presented by this person of interest.

  • The Director of Indigenous Affairs to Mr. Comptroller of Public Order of the Rabat Region, Le Directeur des Affaires Indigènes à Mr le Contrôleur Civil Chef de la Région de Rabat, c/o Mr. Director of the Civic Cabinet in charge of the Department of Public Order at the General Residence.

    Rabat, January 14, 1936

    In reference to your letter No. 14 P.I.R. of January 6, 1936, I have the honor to inform you that I have no objection to accede to the renewal of the passport of the named Said Hajji. I will be in your debt if you would keep me informed if at all possible of his date of departure.

    Signé: Bénazet

  • FYI note established by the Division Commisioner of Rabat dated March 23, 1936.

    Yesterday, the nationalists of Salé held a great diffa (reception) at the "Dar El Khandak" site. To this end, four tents were raised in the chosen locale and the festivities began around nine o'clock.

    The presence of nationalists whose names follow below was noted at this site:

    • Said Hajji, Abdelkrim Hajji, Abdelmajid Hajji, Boubker Kadiri, and Haj Ahmed Maâninou, all residents of Salé

    • Mohammed El Yazidi, Ahmed Balafrej from Rabat

    • Mohammed Diouri from Port Lyautey (currently know as Kenitra)

    • Allal El Fassi, Omar ben Abdeljalil from Fès

  • The Head of the Diplomatic Cabinet of the General Resident Commisioner of the Republic of France to Mr. Director of Indigenous Affairs, General Residence, Rabat.

    (Express Bulletin bearing a "Urgent" heading to ensure the transmission of a letter from the French Consulate in Tetouan with regards to the activities of Said Hajji and suggesting as observations all the indications contained in this letter to the Directorate of Secret Services.)

  • The Vice Consul of France, Manager of the French Consulate to Mr.Plenipotentiary Minister, Delegate to the General Residence, Rabat.

    Tetouan, April 9, 1936

    I have the honor to specifically bring to your attention the one named Said Hajji, a native from Salé whose photograph is attached.

    In point of fact, in order to convey their operating agenda to their French Zone counterparts, the Tetouan nationalists use a number of trusted emissaries who maintain liaisons between Fez, Salé and Tetouan.

    The brother of Abdelkhalek Torres, a garage owner in Tetouan, despite his denying getting mixed into politics, shows no disdain in playing this role during his fairly frequent trips inside our zone.

    However the most active and most dangerous emissary appears to be Said Hajji. This young man has close ties with the Tetuan nationalists and over the course of the numerous trips between this city and Salé, acts as a liaison agent and exchanges operating agendas.

    Perhaps you will deem it useful given these circumstances to request to the security services to initiate an active surveillance of the actions of this nationalist whose photograph is attached.

  • The Director of Indigenous Affairs to Mr. Head of the Diplomatic Cabinet - General Residence.

    Confidential memo dated May 5, 1936 about Said Hajji

    You have been kind enough to send me, under the dispatch note No. 759/D on April 21, 1936, a letter from our consulate in Tetouan about the wrongful acts of the Moroccan, Said Hajji of Salé.

    This Directorate is aware of the particularly active role of this young agitator in the nationalist movement.

    By communicating to you a sheet of information that summarizes comments that have been raised against him, I will be in your debt if you would let me know if you see any inconvenience in withdrawing his passport.

    In effect I judge this measure to be the only one that could put an end to this dangerous activity given that the tightening of surveillance exercised already has been ineffective.

    Signed: Benazet

  • Information Sheet on Said Hajji

    • Moroccan, born in Salé around 1910 (the actual date is February 29, 1912)

    • Son of Sidi Ahmed Hajji, a venerable saintly family, allied to the great families of Salé.

    • Educated in Arabic, after studies at the Islaimic University of Beirut, also possesses some knowledge of French and English.

    • Has had a fairly long stay in London where his father owns a store of Moroccan antiquities.

    • From the beginnings of the opposition movement, is noted for a letter addressed to the Rifian Chieftain Abdelkrim (El Khatabi) in which he expressed his admiration for the rebels.

    • Returning for vacation to Salé in July of 1933, he mingled with militant nationalists and campaigned in the boycott of the state controlled tobacco products.

    • Arrested at Arbaoua (border post between the Spanish and French zones) in June of 1934 coming from Cairo, carrying numerous banned newspapers.

    • Gives free lectures at the Kadiri school of Salé.

    • Organized a solidarity demonstration on the occasion of the liberation of Mohammed Hassar, a political prisoner.

    • Suspected on August 1934 to have sent a congratulatory letter to Hitler upon his election to the presidency of the Reich.

    • Envisions pursuing his studies at the school for oriental languages in Berlin.

    • Met with Bennouna and Spanish nationalist in Tetouan, on many occasions.

    • In Marrakesh in April of 1935, noted for his suspicious meetings and for his actions in the Islamic Welfare Society.

    • Addressed in July of 1935 a request for authorization to create an Arabic literary magazine, authorization rejected.

    • Gave numerous speeches to the association of former students of the school, Sons of Notables of Salé. Attempted without success to be elected as president of the association and to bring along his nationalist friends.

    • Involved in the campaign of opinion against the return of the ashes of Marshall Lyautey.

    • Correspondent in Salé of Mekki Naciri's magazine, Maghrib Al Jadid (The New Morocco) and then of Tetouan's newspaper "Al Akhbar" (The News).

    • Actively publicized for these papers.

    • Addressed a letter to the Resident General (January 1936) to protest against the obstacles set up against the freedom of the press and solicited the authorization to circulate a literary magazine.

    • Conducted multiple trips between Salé and the Spanish zone. Liaison agent with the Tetouan nationlists.

    • A signer of a congratulatory letter sent Nahas Pacha. (Egyptian political figure and nationalist)

    • Frequently receives at his residence nationalist from Fez and Casablanca. Organizes numerous meetings.

    • Must be considered a leader of the opposition movement in Salé where he increasingly is gathering influence.

  • Information Sheet with regards to meetings of the nationalists of Salé.

    On November 5, 1936, a meeting of nationalists was held at Bab Mseddek in Salé at the house of Boubker Kadiri, headmaster of the Koranic school. About 200 nationalists from Salé, Rabat and Fez attended this meeting. From Fez these were Allal El Fassi, Brahim El Wazzani, Omar Ben Abdeljalil and Hachmi Filali and from Rabat, El Yazidi, Ahmed Balafrej, Ahmed Cherkaoui and others.

    This meeting was for the purpose of exposing the results which would have been obtained by delegates of the party with the French government and would have been the objective of a petition to the Resident General before his departure for France. This petition strived for a quick culmination of their demands which included

    1. Education for Moroccans

    2. Reforms of the Berber justice system

    3. Freedom of the press for Arabic publications

    Said Hajji and Boubker Kadiri welcomed and congratulated the delegates returning from France after having worked so well with the French government.

    Leaflets were distributed in the city that acknowledged that the French government in principle has accepted to give satisfaction to the nationalist agenda and to that end a French and Moroccan commission of delegates would be instituted. A copy of the leaflet is attached herein also stated that henceforth assemblies will be organized in all the Moroccan cities.

    Yesterday, November 6, 1936, these same nationalists met again in Bab Hsain in the home of Lahrach.

    Around 6:30PM a group of about fifty from Rabat came on foot to Bab Bouhaja. One of them, El Yazidi, it is believed wore a garland of flowers and led the march. He went straight without hoopla towards the Lahrach residence where at the same time a large number of Slawi invitees arrived and were welcomed by two young locals wearing armbands. The latter introduced those arrived after they presented their invitations. The entrance door of the residence was decorated with Sherifian emblems to the exclusion of any French emblem.

    At about 8:30PM the number of locals gathering at Lahrach's was approximately 400 including the national leaders from Fez, Rabat, Casablanca, Port Lyautey (Kenitra), Meknes, Marrakesh and Safi as well as representatives of various corporations, most notably the shoemakers and mat makers.

    Around 9PM, Boubker Kadiri opened with a eulogy for the deceased Slawi nationalist, Mohammed Hassar who passed away recently. He spoke of the activities of the nationalist party to which he stated that all young Muslims should join.

    Said Hajji and Allal El Fassi spoke about the Berber justice system which they advocated to reform by replacing the current judges most of whom were illiterate by men sufficiently knowledgeable in legal matters and who possess at least a rudimentary education. They insisted also on the need for a free press and magazines printed in Arabic. They made an urgent appeal they felt was needed to acquire the necessary power to achieve the desired result namely for the combined improvement in the material and morale status of Moroccans.

    Haj Ahmed Maaninou delivered an inflamed condemnation of the policy that was pursued since the start of the Protectorate Government with regards to the populations of the countryside. This policy he stated had only one constant goal; to dispossess the poor fellahs (farmers) of their land to benefit the European large settlements. This policy had only one impact, that of creating an unimaginable state of misery for the native countrymen.

    A European of the Lycée Gouraud in Rabat attended this meeting and the speeches were translated for him by an interpreter while he was taking notes.

    The meeting ended at 10:30PM and the invited crowd slowly dispersed, some to their homes in Salé others headed to Rabat. Thirty minutes after midnight there was no one left at Lahrach's.

    At the exit small groups including mat makers and cobblers gathered and discussed what they heard. One could hear some say "that was nice" and others, showing feelings of indifference stating that they understood nothing that was told to them.

    This meeting for which a thousand invitations were sent had a goal above all else to have a large gathering and to enlist as many signatures at the bottom of a petition to implement that nationalist program that all the attendees were encouraged to sign before leaving. This petition would have been sent shortly thereafter to the French government, to His Majesty the Sultan, to the Resident General and to the French Popular Front.

    Salé, November 7, 1936

    Signed: Rocatche

    Copy was transmitted on November 10, 1936 by the Division Commissioner to the Comptroller of Public Order and to the Vice Director of Security Services in Rabat.

  • Informational Bulletins addressed by the Department of Sherifian Affairs to the Director of Political Affairs.

    Bulletin dated November 8, 1937:

    Within the Rabat-Salé circles there is astonishment to see the one named Said Hajji, Director or Editor of the newspaper "Al Maghrib" still free. He is said to be an active nationalist who, on many occasions, has had at his house the leaders of the conspiracy, Allal, El Yazidi and Ben Abdeljalil.

    Bulletin dated November 16, 1937

    The new decree on the press and on the measures to submit articles before their circulation has met with numerous criticisms.

    Said Hajji, Director of the newspaper, Al Maghrib, was so disturbed by the new measures that the latest edition of his paper was not released.

    "It is impossible for me," Said Hajji stated, "to put myself on the same footing as the 'Saada'" (pro-government newspaper written in Arabic).

  • Principle Inspector of Mobile Police to Mr. Division Commissioner in Rabat.

    Salé, January 20, 1938

    I have the honor to make you aware that yesterday, January 19, the nationalist Said Hajji invited a group of local nationalist for lunch at his home. After eating they decided to start a fund on behalf of the nationalists and sympathizers to come to the aid of the nationalist free school of Salé whose director, Boubker Kadiri, is currently in jail.

    Hajji also informed his invitees that one of his French friends, a deputy, wrote and assured him that the political detainees will be pardoned as soon as His Majesty leaves the medical clinic.

    Finally, Léon Blum's failure to form a Ministerial cabinet was a crushing disappointment for them because they were counting on the former Council President to re-enlist their right to a free press.

    Signed: Soler

  • Letter dated January 21, 1938 sent by the Brigade General Richert of the Fez Region to the Comptroller of Public Order of the Rabat Region c/o Director of Political Affairs in Rabat.

    On the 18th of the current month, the Fez police discovered and ceased a packaged containing various newspapers and letters in Arabic that were left in a first class cabin of a train from Tangiers that arrived at 6AM.

    Among the many envelopes containing leaflets and letters sent from Tetouan by Brahim El Wazzani, are some addressed to persons mentioned below that belong to your district:

    1. A large envelope to a Sidi Rachid Ben Hsain, Rue Sidi Fatah, No. 40 in Rabat, containing seven letters to Driss Benyouri, Jaafar Cherkaoui, Mohammed Mouline, Tahar Rifai, Rachid Ben Hsain, Mohammed Ben Abbas Kabbaj and Mohammed Tetouani.

    2. A large envelope to Abdallah Aouad, Kissaria of Salé, containing five letters to the following persons: Sid El Haj Talbi, Abdallah Aouad, Mohammed Chemao, Said Hajji and Othman Lahrach.

    I have the honor to send you these documents for all useful intents and purposes.

    Translation of the circular letter from Brahim El Wazzani dated January 13, 1938:

    Praise and blessings to all!

    To my honorable brother, Said Hajji, greetings,

    I have the pleasure to present to you this publication so that you can be aware of the path I am following to defend the sacred Moroccan cause.

    The actions I am undertaking require much assistance and proven solidarity. I consider you among the militant brothers who will support the burden of this grand effort. I ask you to send me urgently all information related to the Moroccan national movement since the day it began.

    I also ask you to supply all manner of information, large or small they may be, on the most recent events and their consequences.

    I insist that you write me each week and relay to me in a continuous and precise manner all events that have unfolded.

    I remind you that necessity obliges to double our efforts in the national struggle until God, the best of all judges, decides between us and the French. Onwards all militants!

  • The Comptroller of Public Order of the Rabat Region to the Director of Political Affairs.

    Rabat, April 14, 1938

    I have the honor to make you aware of what I have delivered today to Si Said Hajji, Director of the newspaper "Al Maghirb" on the instructions of Mr. Resident General who had spoken with Mr. Sicot: a passport, No. 1.166 valid for three months for France and Switzerland. Si Hajji intends to depart around April 20, 1930 via Oujda. It would be of interest to discretely keep him under surveillance during his stay in France. Attached is the statement signed by the person of interest.

  • The Division Commissioner and Head of Regional Security to Mr.Vice Director and Head of the General Police Services in Rabat.

    Marrakesh, April 20, 1938

    In reference to a telephone message from the Casablanca Security (Bureau) received on April 15 signalling the departure to our city of the persons named, Said Hajji, Director of the "Al Maghrib" newspaper and Sidi Kebir El Fassi, Secretary of the Sherifian Tribunal of Casablanca, I have the honor to inform you that only the latter has arrived in Marrakesh on the 10th on the midday train. He headed back to Casablanca using the same train today.

    Sidi Kebir El Fassi, who stayed with friends during his stay, had come to present his congratulations to his coreligionist, Moulay Laribi Alaoui, who recently was named to the office of Khalifa of His Excellence, the Pasha of Marrakesh.

    Signed: Jean Lucet

  • The Department of Public Order to the Comptroller of Public Order of the Rabat Region.

    Rabat, April 30, 1938

    Re: The activities of Sidi Said Hajji:

    In reference to your message No. 314 of April 14, with regards to the granting of a passport to Sidi Said Hajji, Director of the "Al Maghrib" newspaper so as to visit France and Switzerland, I have the honor to inform you that this person of interest is still in Morocco. He attended yesterday evening the internment of a notable from Salé, the Sheriff Sidi Omar Touhami.

    A particular behavior of his in the recent past was noted. He was observed dressed in European clothes as he traveled recently to Fes and he then returned with a piece of luggage.

    His comings and goings to Rabat are very frequent. They happen to be for the purpose of monitoring the Guessous Institute which he and his father act as its official directors in the absence of Balafrej. Thus it was that one of the instructors of this school, O. Ben Abour, was replaced by Omar Ben Ahmed of Salé. The latter is a former student at the Moulay Youssef College known for its nationalist leanings.

    It is said that the motive for his trip to Fes was to was to be informed on the latest incidents related to the demonstration of support with regards to the Destour (Tunisian Liberal Constitution Party) and to establish a liaison to provoke similar movements in other cities of Morocco.

    It is also said that his trip to France has two goals: First of all, he will seek the support of North African students in Paris as well as certain notables of (the French) Parliament so as to obtain the release of the prisoners convicted in October.

    Afterwards he will meet with Balafrej, who is in Switzerland receiving medical treatment, so as to inform him of the progress of the Guesssou Institute.

    The weekly literary supplement of the "Al Magrib" continues to this day to tow the line. There are no symptoms inciting excitement nor any particular conduct worth mentioning at this itme.

    Signed: Abbadie

  • The Comptroller of Public Order of the Rabat Region to the Director of Political Affairs.

    Rabat, May 2, 1938

    As a follow up to my letter No. 314 PIR sent on April 14th, I have the honor to inform you that Sidi Said Hajji, who appeared to be anxious to leave for France has not yet left Morocco. Attached here is a copy of a letter from the Comptroller of Public Order of Salé that accounts of the activities these past few days of this suspect notable.

    The visa granted to Sidi Said Hajji on April 14 was in conformance with instructions from the Residence to be valid for only 15 days and so this indigenous individual will not be able to follow up on his projected trip without receiving a new visa. Should we grant this? As for me, taking in account new information provided with regards to this person of interest who did not wish to take advantage of the first urgent authorization within the prescribed timeframe, my view is to refuse the (new) visa.

    (Handwritten on the margin: Letter to be annulled. Communaux has informed me that Sidi Said Hajji has effectively made use of his passport to go to Switzerland where he made a very quick trip and met with Balafrej.)

    Conversation with Said Hajji on Wednesday, October 5, 1938

    Said Hajji strongly wishes to obtain authorization to launch a triweekly newspaper which will strive to become a daily as soon as possible after an experimental trial. The literary supplement that he is currently the editor will become a complement to this future information daily.

    Said refuses to collaborate openly with Chemao because the latter is clumsy, devoid of any political acumen and has a poor reputation within Moroccan circles. Without doubt, Chemao is an old and loyal friend, but his intemperate language and impatient acts are such that Said is forced frequently to disapprove of him in public discussions.

    Lastly, he explains, when a global conflict threatens to blow up, Chemao would spread rumors that all nationalist militants would be shot if war erupts. Then he would circulate a proposed letter addressed to the Resident General wherein the signers affirm their devotion and love for the motherland.

    Said deems that he would be able to release a daily brief on the government. It would be a morning paper (in Arabic) that would relay the information contained in the (French) "La Vigie Marocaine" of the past evening plus any communiques gathered by T.S.F. media. He explained at length his project and gave much detail such that one must admit that it has been studied for many years and refined in France, England and Morocco with an accurate estimate of its implementation.

    A large daily requires a monthly minimum of 120,000 Francs. He can only count on a readership 2,000 Moroccans. Thus he would be unable to make a living with a large daily. However with a modest one page daily this could be a viable commercial enterprise especially if the Director is also the owner of its printing house which is the case for Said Hajji.

    Rabat, October 6, 1938

  • Informational memo from the Division Commissioner of Marrakesh addressed to the Department of Public Security, General Police Services in Rabat.

    Marrakesh, November 14, 1939

    Said Hajji, Director of the "Al Magrib" newspaper from Salé passed through Marrakesh on the 6th of the current month coming from Casablanca in the company of Mohammed Ghazi, a known nationalist also residing in Salé.

    These two natives went to the residence of Moulay Hassan Ben Seddik Alaoui, a notorious nationalist who has already been a subject of several reports.

    Even though they made it known that their trip's purpose was to visit Sidi El Kebir Fassi, Secretary of the Mahakma (Royal Court) undergoing treatment at the Mauchamp Hospital, information I have allows one to suppose that these people of interest intended above all else to contact Hamed Ben Lahceb, newspaper agent and brother of Abdelkader Hassan who was recently sentenced to 6 months in jail for possession of (banned) leaflets.

    In fact, they went to the store of the latter then headed back to Casablanca the following day on the 7th without having met with Sidi El Kebir.

    Signed: Division Commissioner Poinset

  • Head of the South District of Chaouia to Mr. Comptroller of Public Order of the Casablanca Region.

    Settat, November 25, 1939

    Said Hajji and Fqih Ghazi who were subjects of my letter No. 338 C. of November 4 of the current year, have pursued their trips to Marrakesh, Masagan (currently aka El Jadida) and Mogador (currently aka Essaouira). Word on the street is that these two people were on an official mission from the French authorities and that they were visiting the locals put under house arrest to encourage them to adopt a loyal stance.

    Signed: Coliac

  • Comptroller of Public Order and Head of the Casablanca Region to Mr. Director of Political Affairs, Rabat.

    As a follow up to my letter No. 3369 of November 10, 1939, I have the honor to provide you in this letter, for all ends that you might find useful, a copy of an informational bulletin No. 360C which was addressed to me by the honorable head of the South District of Chaouia.

    (Signature illegible)

  • Memo of October 26, 1940 addressed to the Director of Political Affairs.

    Said Hajji is requesting an audience with the (Resident) General. He wishes to be authorized to publish a weekly literary and artistic magazine of the genre of the special editions of "Al Maghrib" (newspaper) that he published during the war. He will also provide to the General information on the evolution of what is on the minds of the youth. It appears that he will likely raise once again the issue of the deportees with particular concern to Omar Ben Abdeljalil.

  • Memo from the Head of the Center for Islamic Documentation and Publications addressed to the Director of Political Affairs.

    November 7, 1940

    Sidi Said Hajji, Director of the newspaper, "Al Maghrib" and resident of Salé brought yesterday to the Center for Islamic Documentation and Publications poetry dedicated to the Moroccan youth and an expose on Enthronement Day and a biography of the Alaouite Dynasty that the authors, Mustafa El Gharbaoui and Ben Al Hassan, both from Casablanca, who would like to publish these on Enthronement Day. Sidi Hajji made it known that he did not intend to publish these works in his newspaper, but was interested nevertheless because they would be processed by his printing house.

    He was immediately told that the Center for Islamic Documentation and Publications was qualified to review newspapers and periodicals in Arabic but all other publications require an authorization to publish from the local authorities. Sidi Said Hajji then declared that he would prefer to abandon this printing project because of the lengthiness of this process.

    A review of the submitted documents, it turns out that there are retractions that must be made prior to publication. Notably in the expose there are certain passages that contain criticisms of Moroccan historians, in particular Ahmed Naciri who wrote "El Istiqsa" while other passages at the very least shower praise on the young author, Abdallah Guennon from Tangiers who wrote "Al Noubough Al Amaghrib" which is banned in Morocco. In any case if these modifications are made, it appears that the poetry and the expose could be published without any inconvenience on the occasion of Enthronement Day.

    If the Political Affairs section shares this viewpoint, the Center for Islamic Documentation and Publications could submit as early as today these manuscripts to the Department of Sherifian Affairs and invite the printer to submit his request to the Comptroller of Public Order of Salé. Such rapid response in fulfilling the usual formalities would have the advantage among others to provide the Center for Islamic Documentation and Publications with the opportunity to render a new service to the Director of the "Al Maghrib" to nudge him a little more towards sharing our propaganda for the greatest good in his newspaper.

    The following was written on the margin of this letter:

    "Concur to publish if the retractions deemed necessary by the Center for Islamic Documentation and Publications are implemented in a timely manner before printing. November 11, 1940")

  • Said Hajji's letter to Mr. Sicot, Director of Political Affairs.

    April 9, 1941

    Note at the bottom of the letter written in Arabic:

    "Sidi Said Hajji, Director of the "Al Maghrib" newspaper strongly thanks Mr. Director of Political Affairs for his expressions of sympathy following the passing of his brother, Mohammed, and to please accept his respectful greetings."

  • Authorization submitted by the Director of Political Affairs to allow Said Hajji to visit Mohammed El Yazidi in exile.

    Sidi Said Hajji of Salé, is authorized to go to Ouaouizath to meet with Sidi Mohammed El Yazidi. He will present himself upon his arrival to the Head of the Indigenous Affairs of the District.

    Certified copy sent to Mr. Secretary General of the Region - Marrakesh, for his information.

    April 12, 1941

    Signed: Lebrun

  • Informational memo dated June 11, 1941 addressed to the Department of Political Affairs.

    Said Hajji, Director of the "Al Maghrib" newspaper took advantage of his arrival in Fez during the trip by His Majesty the Sultan to seek informants among the merchants and employees of the municipal services. That is how he was able to join up with Abdelkrim Lazrak and Mohammed El Kettani of the municipal council and with Mohammed Sl Marani, Smires and Souaf of New Fez; all three are employees of the municipal services.

    Certified copy sent as an FYI to Mr. Secretary General of the Region - Fez

    Rabat, June 11, 1941

    Signed: Lebrun

  • Detailed information on the activities of nationalists from Fez.

    (Excerpts from a letter sent to most probably Captain Clément (as the name was illegible in the actual document) who is in the Department of Political Affairs. Translated from Arabic, it was sent by a certain Kacem Ben Abdeslam El Ghazi Senhaji of Fes and was intercepted on June 11, 1941, and sent as an FYI to C.C.C.P. Vichy and to B.C.C.T. in Algiers and remitted to the Department of Political Affairs. In addition the following remark was written at the bottom of the text: This letter which was to be trashed due to inability to identify the addressee was transferred after being opened to the B.C.C.T by the Office of P.T.T. (Telephone, Telegraph and Post Office)).

    The new nationalist are forming a growing group with numerous merchants and notables from Fez and are constantly having meetings. Meanwhile the journalists, Zhiri and Said Hajjji, have become members in this new formation of nationalists. They have enlisted men from the merchants and employees of the municipal services to provide them with secret information related to Fez and its suburbs. These men are Abdelkrim Lazrak, a member of the municipal council, Smires, Secretary of the municipal services, Mohammed El Amrani, employee of the municipal services and Mohammed El Kettani, member of the municipal council. That is what I know at this time. I will provide you with more details when I have investigated the situation in Fez, in the Mandoubia, the suburbs and their leaders. The latter are committing crimes in the their judgements against their constituents and the French authorities do not exercise any control because they are preoccupied with their own survival.

    The rumor that runs currently through their midst with regards to the war is that the French are using a ruse in cahoots with England so that they can retain their arms if there is a German armistice commission . They would pose as defenders of their country until the time when they have sufficient strength that will allow them to turn against Germany and hit it to force it to retreat and to lose its strength. However it could not weaken, on the contrary, it could grow stronger and the war would last three to five more years and become global. They dread English danger to (seize) the Moroccan ports such as Rabat's and Casablanca's amongst others. Currently they await the results of the Suez campaign. If the Germans seize it, they will be victorius, whereas if they can not, they will know that they will be vanquished.

  • Commissioner Head of Regional Security at Meknes to Mr. Director of Public Security Services - Rabat.

    Meknes, November 4, 1941

    1. The Director of the Arab newspaper "Al Maghrib" came to Meknes from Salé during the last days of October accompanied by the brother of Mohammed Chemao, Director of the newspaper, "Al Widad." These two individuals visited the person whose name is Kacem Zhiri, nationalist and first editor of "Al Maghrib" who came to Meknes about a month ago alleging for health reasons. The trip of Said Hajji and Mohammed's brother was according to them motivated by their wish to increase the number of subscribers and to see those venfors who sold their papers. A link could be made between this travel and rumors circulating about an eventual creation of an Arabic newspaper without any specifics from our services. The duration of the stay of Said Hajji and his companion in Meknes lasted only a day during which they were in contact with Mohammed Ben Driss Chakroun and other nationalists.

    2. The one named Sidi Driss Al Wazzani, currently under house arrest at Itzer, came to Meknes on October 31. Asked by several nationalists about the eventual liberation of his nephew, Driss Al Wazzani allegedly replied that the very light conditions of imprisonment that were imposed to the latter by the French authorities has made his stay very acceptable and, to his knowledge, there was any issue for his liberation.

    Commissioner Head of the Regional Security

    Signed: Hyacinthe

  • Unsigned handwritten memo, dated March 21, 1942.

    40 days after the funeral of Said Hajji, and according to tradition, the friends of the deceased led by Omar Ben Abdeljalil, have agreed to gather at their friends burial site. There will be speeches and undoubtedly a small nationalist demonstration.

  • Informational memo by the Division Commissioner addressed to the Director of Public Security Services.

    Rabat, April 20, 1942

    On the occasion of the fortieth day since the passing of Sidi Said Hajji, a commemoration was organized on the 19th of the current month by the students, the former students, the Ulemas (elders) and nationalists of Salé in the hall of the Mamounia. The ceremony started at 4:10 PM. Several speeches were delivered by a number of individuals from Salé and notably by Mohammed El Fassi of the Moroccan Institute of Higher Learning, Boubker Zniber and by Boubker Kadiri. The latter, using emotional words, eulogized the beloved Said Hajji and provided an overview of his career. He also said a few words in honor of the great historian, Fqih Ben Ali. About a thousand people attended this meeting, including MM Bouzard of Supply Services, Térézano from the Public Order of the Rabat Region, His Excellence Mekki Sbihi, representative of the Pasha of Salé and numerous nationalists from Rabat and Salé. There were no incidents to mention.

    Division Commissioner

    Signed: Cassan

  • Memo with regards to the tributes that were delivered on April 12 on the fortieth day after the passing of Said Hajji.

    Reference: Letter No. 5763 NR/2 of March 31, 1942. Texts submitted for review to the Center for Islamic Documentation and Publications

    Text No 1 - 'Fi Dimmati Allahi ya Said': Under God's Protection, Oh Said - Poem by Driss El Kettani, Karaouiyine student

    Text No 2 - 'Nam fi Jiwari Allahi': Sleep beside God - Poem by Hammad Laraki, Karaouiyine student

    Text No 3 - 'Aouatif Lubnaniya': Lebanese Sentiments - by Michel Khayat from Casablanca

    Text No 4 - 'Said Assadiq': Said and sincere friendship - by Hachmi Filali, member of the Executive Committee of the National Party

    Text No 5 - 'Said fi Atwari hayatihi': Said across the phases of his life - by Boubker Zniber, legal adviser from Salé

    Text No 6 - 'Sowar min Achjan': Scenes of distress - by Abdelghani Skirej, Karaouiyine student

    Text No 7 - 'Cheikh Al chabab': The mentor of youth - by Abdelkébir El Fassi, Secretary on the Central Makhzen (Moroccan Administration)

    Text No 8 - 'Fi Jiwari Allahi': Beside God - by Abdelkader Hassan from Marrakesh

    Text No 9 - 'Mawt Al chabab idah': Death of young man is a clarion call - by Othmane Mtaï from Moroccan Higher Learning .

    A review of the texts in these nine tributes gave no grounds for making observations, The subject matter of all included the moral and intellectual qualities of Said Hajji, his work in the area of the press and the role model he was for the youth.

    The text of these tributes that the ceremony organizers plan on having read during the meeting are also destined to he published in a special edition of "Al Maghrib" which will be released very shortly, The nine texts were submitted directly after censure approval to Sidi Kacem Zhiri, editor of the aforementioned newspaper.

    Text No 10 - 'La Adri Ayahuma daâ lisahibihi': I know not who of the two pity's the death of the other - by Haj Ahmed Maâninou of Salé. (Currently Secretary of the Al Wahda Al Maghghribia Party of Tetouan)

    Text No 11 - 'Al Adab fi Ayam Said': Literature during Said's era - by Ben Ahmed, Karaouiyine student

    Text No 12 - 'Al dikra Alkhalida': Eternal Remembrance - by Bouchaïb Doukkali, teacher at the Islamic school at Mechra Bel Ksiri

    Text No 13 - 'Said rajoul Al Amal': Said, Man of action - by Mohammed ben Larbi from Safi, Karaouiyine student

    Text No 14 - 'Mata Saïd': Said is dead by Haj Driss El Ghomari from Casablanca

    Text No 15 - 'Dam'â âla rouhi Said': A teardrop on Said's soul - by Mohammed Abdellaoui, Karaouiyine student (two verses marked with red strike-through were censored)

    Text No 16 - 'Said Bayna Fitratay Al zaman': Said amid two worlds - by Houssain Cherkaoui from Salé (page 3 struck through in red was censored)

    Text No 17 - 'Said wa Almatbaâ': Said and the printing house - by Omar Nejjar from Salé.

    The texts of tributes numbered 10 through 17 do not beg any observation, with the exception of the indicated sections slashed in red for texts 15 and 16. There is cause to underline here that tribute No. 10 was signed by Haj Ahmed Maânino. He is a nationalist from Salé and currently the Party Secretary for "Al Wahda Al Maghribia" of Mekki Naciri from Tetouan.

    A poem signed by Mohammed El Kharraf has been retained at the Center for Islamic Documentation and Publications for more in depth review.

    In addition, Sidi Kacem Zhiri has submitted yesterday in person to the Center for Islamic Documentation and Publications two new tributes, one from Haj Omar ben Abdeljali to be read by Fqih Mohammed Ghazi, and the other without the name of the author titled "Panygeric for a friend." These will be sent to the Regional Office in Rabat after review.

    Other texts submitted for review to the Center for Islamic Documentation and Publications.

    Reference: Letter of April 7, 1942

    Text No 20 - 'Maâ Saïd fi maydan Al Aâmal': With Said in the field of action. This tribute that does not bear a signature emanates from Boubker Kadiri, representative of the National Party in Salé and Said Hajji's collaborator on the "Al Magrib" newspaper. It consists of a brief recall of the different stages of the collaboration between Said Hajji and Boubker Kadiri in the field of journalism with a few allusions to their common efforts on the national activist front. The censored allusions (underlined in red) taken in the text remove for the most part their political bearing.

    Text No 21 - 'Bayna Assahafa wa Al Adab' - From the press to literature. This tribute does not bear the name of the author. It deals with the journalistic activities of Said. Several parts have been suppressed and are underlined in red.

    These two tributes can be read without any concern (subject to the deletions). There is cause to identity the name of the author of each.

  • Letter addressed to His Excellence the Grand Vizir requesting authorization to transfer the "Al Maghrib" newspaper to Kacem Zhiri.

    Salé, April 7, 1942

    (After the greetings and customary compliments)

    I request to Your Excellence to please lend me your support to transfer the "Al Maghrib" newspaper which was run by my departed son, Said Hajji, to his biggest and best collaborator, Sidi Kacem Zhiri.

    (Followed by best wishes to His Majesty the Sherifian Sultan)

    Signed: Ahmed Hajji

  • Information memo established by the Commissioner and Head of the Police for General Intelligence.

    Rabat, December 8, 1952

    For your awareness: The journalists of the Istiqlal Part (Independence Party) have sent a condolence telegram to the General Union of Tunisian Workers following the assassination of their leader, Ferhat Hachad. The telegram was signed by Abdeljalil Kabbaj, Mohammed Ghazi, Abderrahim Bouabid and Abdelkrim Hajji.

    Signed: The Commissioner Head of the Police for General Intelligence

    J. Delachaux

Saïd Hajji, two years before his death on March 2, 1942.

Saïd Hajji, two years before his death on March 2, 1942.

Abderrahman Youssoufi. Moroccan Prime Minister and General Secretary of the Union Socialistes des Forces Populaires Party. (Socialist Union of Popular Forces Party) perusing the Arabic version of the text dedicated to the memory of Said Hajji. Photograph was taken at the Prime Minister's residence on March 13, 2003.

Abderrahman Youssoufi. Moroccan Prime Minister and General Secretary of the Union Socialistes des Forces Populaires Party. (Socialist Union of Popular Forces Party) perusing the Arabic version of the text dedicated to the memory of Said Hajji. Photograph was taken at the Prime Minister's residence on March 13, 2003.

Abderrahman Youssoufi hosting Abderraouf Hajji, author of the recently released book in Arabic titled "Said Hajji, Birth of the Moroccan National Press in Arabic." The photograph and article were published in the Ittihad Ichtiraki (Socialist Union) newspaper, edition No. 7155 on March 14, 2003.

Abderrahman Youssoufi hosting Abderraouf Hajji, author of the recently released book in Arabic titled "Said Hajji, Birth of the Moroccan National Press in Arabic." The photograph and article were published in the Ittihad Ichtiraki (Socialist Union) newspaper, edition No. 7155 on March 14, 2003.